By Ryan Prete, Jul 25, 2023
Table of Contents
Welcome to the third installment of our educational blog series on initial public offerings. In our first blog, we examined the IPO process in great detail, discussing the alternative paths companies may take to list on a public stock exchange, the filings needed to launch an IPO, and much more. In our second installment, we discussed the advantages and disadvantage of an IPO; analyzing the factors a company should consider before beginning the journey towards a public listing. In our third installment, we will focus on IPO readiness, a necessary and crucial conversation about the steps a company needs to complete to position itself for success in the public markets.
The term “IPO readiness” refers to the state of a company’s preparedness once it decides to undergo an initial public offering. The IPO process is complex and involves various legal, financial, and regulatory requirements. When examined these steps in length in the first installment of our IPO series.
Companies seeking to go public must first demonstrate a level of stability, growth potential, and transparency to attract investors and comply with market regulations.
IPO readiness is a comprehensive, rigorous, and crucial process to ensuring a smooth and successful transition to the public markets. Some key steps of a company’s IPO readiness plan should include:
The soon-to-be public company should have a strong financial track record, with consistent revenue growth, profitability, and positive cash flow. Financial statements must be audited and in compliance with accounting standards.
A well-established and transparent corporate governance structure is essential. The company should have a strong board of directors with independent members, well-defined roles and responsibilities, and established committees like audit and compensation committees.
A capable and experienced management team is critical for an IPO. Investors want to see a leadership team with a proven track record and the ability to execute the company’s growth plans effectively. We will discuss the importance of a management team further in the section below.
The company must comply with all legal and regulatory requirements relevant to the IPO process and public companies. This includes ensuring proper disclosures, adherence to securities laws, and addressing any potential legal issues.
The decision to go public also depends on market conditions and investor appetite for the company’s industry or sector. A favorable market environment can lead to a successful IPO.
Investors seek companies with a strong market position and a clear and scalable business model. Demonstrating a competitive advantage and addressing potential risks is crucial.
Companies should be prepared to engage with investors and analysts regularly. Developing a comprehensive investor relations strategy is essential for maintaining confidence and managing expectations.
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Once a company decides to hit the public markets, it needs to assemble and hire a management team that includes various advisors and other professionals who will navigate the company through the complex IPO process. This team will also work to ensure the company is complying with legal and regulatory requirements. We also dive deeper into these roles in the first installment of our IPO series. These key roles include:
A company’s CFO plays a crucial role in the IPO process. They are responsible for the company’s financial planning, financial statements, and overall financial strategy. During the IPO, the CFO works closely with the finance team and external auditors to ensure that the financial information is accurate and complies with regulatory standards.
Investment banks are necessary in the IPO process as they act as underwriters. They help the company determine the IPO offering price, the number of shares to be issued, and the timing of the offering. Investment bankers also market the IPO to potential investors, facilitate the sale of shares, and ensure the IPO’s overall success.
A company needs to engage legal advisors, usually a law firm with expertise in securities laws and IPOs. These legal experts guide the company through the regulatory and compliance aspects of the IPO, prepare the necessary legal documentation, and ensure that the company adheres to all relevant laws and regulations.
A reputable auditing firm is essential to audit the company’s financial statements and provide an independent assessment of the company’s financial health. Auditors help in verifying the accuracy and reliability of financial information, which is crucial for gaining investor confidence.
Companies may hire consultants or experts who have experience dealing with the SEC to ensure compliance with all regulatory requirements and streamline the communication and submission processes with the regulatory body.
These professionals are responsible for managing the company’s communications with the media, investors, and the public. PR specialists handle the company’s public image, while IR specialists engage with investors and analysts, providing them with relevant information and updates.
The IPO process involves a myriad of various legal and financial documents that a company must complete and submit to a number of regulatory bodies. Specific requirements can vary depending on the geographical location of a company, and the public stock exchange where a company will land. Some common documents and statements needed to go public include:
This is the most crucial document and is filed with the securities regulatory authority in the company’s home country, such as the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in the United States. The registration statement contains essential information about the company’s business, financials, management, risks, and other relevant details.
The prospectus is a part of the registration statement, but it’s important enough to be highlighted separately. It is the document provided to potential investors and contains detailed information about the company, its financial performance, business model, risks, and the proposed terms of the offering.
A company going public must provide comprehensive financial statements, including audited balance sheets, income statements, and cash flow statements for a specified period. These statements are usually for the past three years.
This agreement is signed between the company and the underwriters (investment banks) managing the IPO. It specifies the terms and conditions of the underwriting and the responsibilities of both parties.
During the SEC review process, the company may receive comments or requests for additional information. The responses to these comments form part of the registration statement.
As you know by now, preparing for an IPO is a massive undertaking, a moment that can define, or alter, a company’s success story. Here are a couple efficient strategies to consider when beginning the journey:
Start the IPO readiness process well in advance of the planned IPO date. This will allow your company to address any potential issues and ensure that all necessary documents and financials are in order.
Appoint a team of experienced professionals, including investment bankers, lawyers, accountants, and auditors, who have expertise in guiding companies through the IPO process.
Be transparent with potential investors and regulatory authorities. Identify and address any potential risks or issues that may impact your company’s valuation or growth prospects.
Ensure that your financial statements are accurate, transparent, and comply with all relevant accounting standards. Engage reputable auditors to conduct a thorough audit of your financials.
Implement robust internal controls and reporting processes to ensure compliance with regulatory requirements and best practices.
Conduct a mock due diligence process to identify any weaknesses or issues that might be discovered during the IPO process. Address these concerns proactively.
Market conditions can make or break a company’s public offering, and while nobody can predict how the market will perform in the future, analyzing the market’s recent performance and stability is crucial ahead of an IPO. Some necessary market metrics to consider are:
The company should have a track record of strong financial performance, with steady revenue growth, profitability, and positive cash flow. Consistent financial results instill confidence in potential investors.
The company’s product or service should address a sizable market opportunity with a significant addressable market. Investors are attracted to companies with the potential for substantial growth.
The company should have a clear and sustainable business model that demonstrates its ability to generate revenue and profit over the long term. The business model should be well-defined and have a competitive advantage in the market.
Consider the prevailing market conditions and investor sentiment. A favorable IPO market with a demand for new offerings can significantly impact the success of the IPO.
Gauge investor interest and be ready to engage with potential investors. A strong investor base can support the IPO and contribute to its success.
Early investors and venture capitalists should have a clear exit strategy through the IPO. Demonstrating how existing investors will realize value can be crucial.
Determining the valuation of a company when going public is a pivotal step in the IPO process. The valuation represents the estimated worth of the company and plays a significant role in attracting potential investors, but the process of determining a true valuation is difficult. We also discussed this topic further in the second installment of our IPO series. Several methods and factors are considered to arrive at an appropriate valuation, including:
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Several companies have successfully navigated the IPO readiness process, positioning themselves well for a successful public offering. Here are a couple examples of publicly-traded companies that cashed in on successful IPO readiness regimes:
Beyond Meat, a producer of plant-based meat substitutes, had a successful IPO in May 2019. The company positioned itself as a pioneer in the plant-based protein market, capitalizing on the growing trend of environmentally conscious and health-conscious consumers. Beyond Meat’s IPO raised $240 million and valued the company at over $1.4 billion.
Palantir Technologies, a big data analytics company, went public in September 2020. The company had a unique approach to IPO readiness, opting for a direct listing on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). Prior to the direct listing, Palantir spent several years preparing its financials and improving corporate governance practices. The company also expanded its customer base, which included government agencies and large enterprises, showcasing its strong value proposition. Palantir’s direct listing was well-received, and its valuation reached around $22 billion on the first day of trading.
Airbnb, the online vacation rental marketplace, conducted its IPO in December 2020. The company overcame challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic by emphasizing its adaptability and long-term potential. Airbnb’s IPO raised $3.5 billion, and the company’s valuation exceeded $100 billion.
The popular music streaming service Spotify went public in April 2018 through a direct listing on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). Before the IPO, Spotify focused on growing its user base and negotiating favorable licensing agreements with major music labels. The direct listing allowed the company’s existing shares to trade publicly without the need for additional fundraising. We discussed direct listing in detail in the second installment of our IPO series.
Like in many mounting tasks, one can never be too prepared. The same goes for an initial public offering, a defining event for companies seeking to land on a public exchange. As we discussed above, a pre-IPO company must surround itself with the right professionals, never alienate current and future investors, and fall in line with regulatory bodies and the SEC. Future market performance is impossible to predict, but preparation and experience can lend a hand to a better shot at success in the public markets. As always: education is key. We hope this installment of our IPO blog series has been helpful to readers; be sure to visit our blog for the next installment in our series, where we will examine and analyze the exit strategies of public companies.
This material, provided by Linqto, is for informational purposes only and is not intended as investment advice or any form of professional guidance. Before making any investment decision, especially in the dynamic field of private markets, it is recommended that you seek advice from professional advisors. The information contained herein does not imply endorsement of any third parties or investment opportunities mentioned. Our market views and investment insights are subject to change and may not always reflect the most current developments. No assumption should be made regarding the profitability of any securities, sectors, or markets discussed. Past performance is not indicative of future results, and investing in private markets involves unique risks, including the potential for loss. Historical and hypothetical performance figures are provided to illustrate possible market behaviors and should not be relied upon as predictions of future performance.