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Beginners Guide to Machine Learning (ML)

By Ryan Prete, Jun 8, 2023

Open laptop displaying detailed medical holographic images including human anatomy, DNA strands, and brain scans, representing advanced medical technology and diagnostics.

Computer systems and models are advancing at what seems to be an unprecedented pace, taking on new capabilities that are evolving the way we think about artificial learning. Technology like facial recognition, social media optimization, and predictive analysis are just a few examples of machine learning, which is rapidly being integrated into all corners of the technological environment.  

What is Machine Learning (ML)?   

Machine Learning (ML) is a subset of artificial intelligence, devoted to the development of models and algorithms that allow computers and other technology to create predications and make decisions, without the need to be specifically programmed. Through the study of statistical techniques and computer algorithms, computer scientists have built the technology necessary to allow machines to learn from analyze limitless amounts of data. 

How does Machine Learning (ML) work?  

Machine learning systems function through programming created by computer scientists, and are “trained” on data, allowing them to make predictions or created responses on new, unseen data. Machine Learning essentially means computer models can automatically learn and improve from data, or by experiencing other programmed tasks. Models learn from inputted data, therefore generating predictions or decisions when tasked with never-before-seen data.


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What are use cases for Machine Learning (ML)?    

Even a week after this blog is published on the internet, there will already likely be scores of additional machine learning uses. Some currently examples include: 

Image recognition   

The automated recognition of regularities and patterns in data, some examples of image recognition include data and image analysis, informational retrieval, recognition of computer graphics, and others.

Self-driving automobiles 

Machine learning capabilities allow for the technology is autonomous automobiles, created by Tesla, Waymo, Cruise, and other companies, to operate. 

Medical diagnosis assistance   

Machine learning technologies are trained to identify patterns that may be hidden or complex. Through this technology, machine learning can use such patterns to predict answers to problems, or cluster information into useful groups for comparison, such as similar images of cancerous lesions. Machine learning can also be used to identify patterns that may be hidden or complex, such as the details within the imagery of x-rays, ultrasounds, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), according to the U.S. Government Accountability Office. 

What are the four types of Machine Learning (ML)?  

According to Emeritus, an AI and ML dedicated education platform the four types of Machine Learning are 

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1. Supervised Learning 

In this form of machine learning, models are trained with labeled data, in which the input data is partnered with corresponding “target labels” or “output values.” The goal with supervised learning is to create a model mapping function that can predict the correct output for previously unseen data. Examples include: decision trees, neural networks, and support vector machines, and is commonly used to predict a category or class (classification) or continuous value (regression) 

2. Unsupervised Learning: 

In unsupervised learning, the goal is for the model, or algorithm, to create inherent patterns, relationships, or structures through the provided data. Common tasks include: dimensionality reduction, clustering, and anomaly detection. 

3. Semi-Supervised Learning

This form of machine learning combines supervised and unsupervised learning, meaning the algorithm uses both “labeled” and “unlabeled” data. The mission with semi-supervised learning is utilize the unlabeled data to build the learning process, in turn improving the model’s performance. This form is serves well when obtaining labeled data is expensive or time-consuming. 

4. Reinforcement Learning

With Reinforcement Learning, a model actually interacts with a given “environment” and learns through trial and error to maximize its “reward signal” meaning the model learns by taking certain actions in a given “environment” and receives “feedback” via rewards or punishments. Applications that use reinforcement learning include robotics, autonomous systems (such as self-driving cars), and game playing. 

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What are the benefits of Machine Learning (ML)?  

With machine learning still in its infancy, new benefits are still being discovered daily. Some notable benefits include: Automation, efficiency and time-saving uses, improved personalization and machine recommendation through the use of limitless historical data, improved decision making, the expedited use of large-scale data, automation of repetitive tasks, improved accuracy and predictability, rapid adaptability, and much more. 

 Machine Learning Investments at Linqto

Linqto offers an array of artificial intelligence offerings, including AI cloud for contact centers ASAPP, retail AI startup Standard AI, generative AI platform SambaNova, and complex artificial intelligence deep learning application developer Cerebras Systems.   

Investors in these three AI startups include Temasek, GIC, BlackRock, Altimeter Capital, Benchmark Capital, Coatue Management, SK Networks, TI Platform Management, and many others. 

This material, provided by Linqto, is for informational purposes only and is not intended as investment advice or any form of professional guidance. Before making any investment decision, especially in the dynamic field of private markets, it is recommended that you seek advice from professional advisors. The information contained herein does not imply endorsement of any third parties or investment opportunities mentioned. Our market views and investment insights are subject to change and may not always reflect the most current developments. No assumption should be made regarding the profitability of any securities, sectors, or markets discussed. Past performance is not indicative of future results, and investing in private markets involves unique risks, including the potential for loss. Historical and hypothetical performance figures are provided to illustrate possible market behaviors and should not be relied upon as predictions of future performance.


What is the difference between machine learning and deep learning?

According to ZenDesk: “Machine learning uses algorithms to parse data, learn from that data, and make informed decisions based on what it has learned. Deep learning structures algorithms in layers to create an “artificial neural network” that can learn and make intelligent decisions on its own.”

What is the difference between artificial intelligence and machine learning?

According to Columbia University: “Put in context, artificial intelligence refers to the general ability of computers to emulate human thought and perform tasks in real-world environments, while machine learning refers to the technologies and algorithms that enable systems to identify patterns, make decisions, and improve themselves through experience and data.”

When was machine learning invented?

According to Pandio: “Arthur Samuel, a computer scientist at IBM and a pioneer in AI and computer gaming, coined the term “Machine Learning” in 1952. That was when he designed a computer program for playing checkers. The more the program played the game, the more it learned from its experience, thanks to a minimax algorithm for studying moves to come up with winning strategies.”

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Ryan Prete

Ryan Prete

Ryan is a financial writer for Linqto, known for his original blog content, articles, and other works. He previously worked as a financial writer at PitchBook Data, where he covered private equity, and as a reporter for Bloomberg in Washington D.C.,where he reported on tax policy. Ryan has also reported on cybersecurity policy for Inside Washington Publishers. His work has been featured in The Wall Street Journal, Axios, Yahoo News, and Reuters. He is a graduate of the University of California, Santa Barbara.